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BIOBRIEF

Odontogenic Keratocyst Management

Bassam Kinaia, DDS, MS, DICOI

THE SITUATION

A 60-year-old-heathy Caucasian female presented with the chief complaint: “I noticed a bump on my lower left teeth since last year.” An examination revealed a stable periodontium except for enlarged gingival tissue between #21-22 measuring 10x8x5mm, well-defined borders, depressible, non-painful, and vital teeth without displacement. The treatment plan included flap surgery, excisional biopsy, GTR #21-22 (Diff Dx: Lateral periodontal cyst (LPC), Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC), Benign Fibro-Osseous lesion (BFOL).

Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) using Geistlich Bio-Oss® and vallos®f was performed and covered with a resorbable collagen membrane (Geistlich Bio-Gide®).

Primary closure was completed using non-resorbable sutures. Follow-up at 2, 4 weeks, 3, 6 months showed stable periodontium without re-occurrence. The pathology report indicated OKC and the area is monitored annually.

THE RISK PROFILE

Low RiskMedium RiskHigh Risk
Patient’s healthIntact immune system Light smokerImpaired immune system 
Patient’s esthetic requirementsLowMediumHigh
Height of smile lineLowMediumHigh
Gingival biotypeThick – “low scalloped”Medium – “medium scalloped”Thin – “high scalloped”
Shape of dental crownsRectangularTriangular
Infection at implant sightNoneChronicAcute
Bone height at adjacent tooth site≤ 5 mm from contact point5.5 – 6.5 mm from contact point≥ 7 mm from contact point
Restorative status of adjacent toothIntactRestored
Width of tooth gap1 tooth (≥ 7 mm)1 tooth (≤ 7 mm)2 teeth or more
Soft-tissue anatomyIntactCompromised
Bone anatomy of the alveolar ridgeNo defectHorizontal defectVertical defect
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THE APPROACH

The treatment goal was to excise the lesion around #21-22 and stabilize the periodontium. Sulcular incisions #20-22 with vertical incision #22 MF were performed. Upon full thickness flap reflection, the lesion was removed (excisional biopsy). The defect extended #21M-#22D with complete facial bone loss. It was a wide 1-2 bony wall defect measuring 10x8x5mm. GTR procedure using Geistlich Bio-Oss® and vallos®f and Geistlich Bio-Gide® for the collagen membrane were employed. Primary closure was obtained using 6-0 prolene suture.

Initial clinical and radiographic presentation shows buccal soft tissue enlargement and bone loss #21-22 area.
Clinical facial view showing full thickness flap reflection with complete enucleation of cystic lesion (excisional biopsy).
Clinical view showing hydration of vallos®f and Geistlich Bio-Oss® as two separate grafts.
Clinical facial view showing placement of vallos®f internally for maximum osteogenic/osteoinductive potential and Geistlich Bio-Oss® externally for space maintenance.
Clinical facial view showing placement of Geistlich Bio-Gide® covering the defect and extending one tooth mesillay and distally.
Clinical facial view showing primary closure using 6-0 prolene sutures.
CBCT immediately post-surgery showing radiolucent allograft internally for osseoinduction and radiopaque xenograft externally for space maintenance.
After flap elevation at 4 months showing, the new buccal bone plate together with a completely filled alveolus.
Clinical facial views showing healing at 2 and 4 weeks with proper soft tissue healing.
6 months post-surgery radiographic presentation showing stable periodontium and proper bone fill #21-22 area.
Comparison of pre- and post-surgical CBCT views showing good bone formation.
Comparison of pre- and post-surgical clinical views showing stable periodontium.

“Excisional biopsy and guided tissue regeneration is indicated to treat the pathology (#21-22 area) and stabilize the periodontium.”

— Dr. Bassam Kinaia

THE OUTCOME

Complete excision of pathology and biopsy followed by GTR using vallos®f internally for maximum osteogenic/osteoinductive potential and Geistlich BioOss® externally for space maintenance showed excellent radiographic bone fill and stable periodontium.

Six-month post-surgical clinical view shows stable periodontium.

Guided tissue regeneration using vallos®f bone graft (allograft as an internal first layer), Geistlich Bio-Oss® (as an outside second layer), and collagen membrane showed predictable periodontal regeneration.

Dr. Bassam Kinaia

Bassam Kinaia, DDS, MS, DICOI

Dr. Kinaia is the Associate Director of the Graduate Periodontology Program at the University of Detroit Mercy (UDM). He is also the former Director of the Periodontology Program at UDM in Michigan and Boston University Institute for Dental Research and Education in Dubai. He is a Diplomate of the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and International Congress of Oral Implantology (ICOI). He received a certificate of Excellence from the AAP in recognition of teaching-research fellowship.